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Ocean Life: Past, Present, and Future

Click the map to zoom in. Click and drag to explore the map, or use the controls below the map.

Flip the Map (to Diversity, Distribution, Abundance)   •   Download Map   •   National Geographic Maps & Conservation




Present Biodiversity (Main Map)

  • Halpern, B., S. Walbridge, K. Selkoe, C. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D'Agrosa, J. Bruno, et al. 2008. A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems. Science 319, no. 5865 (February 15): 948-952. doi:10.1126/science.1149345
  • Tittensor, D., C. Mora, W. Jetz, H. Lotze, D. Ricard, E. Vanden Berghe, and B. Worm. 2010. Global patterns and predictors of marine biodiversity across taxa. Nature 466, no. 7310: 1098-1101. doi:10.1038/nature09329

A History of Removals

  • Lund, J.N., E.A. Josephson, R.R. Reeves, and T.D. Smith. 2010. American Offshore Whaling Voyages: 1667-1927. Old Dartmouth Historical Society -- New Bedford Whaling Museum.  Track lines are for voyages 272, 318, 455, 12570 and 15166 described therein.
  • McClenachan, L. 2009. Documenting Loss of Large Trophy Fish from the Florida Keys with Historical Photographs. Conservation Biology 23, no. 3 (June): 636-643. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01152.x.

Going Farther, Catching Less

  • Myers, R.A., and B. Worm. 2003. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423, no. 6937 (May 15): 280-283. doi:10.1038/nature01610

Where is Life Abundant?

  • Wei, C., G.T. Rowe, E. Escobar-Briones, A. Boetius, T. Soltwedel, J. Caley, Y. Soliman, et al. 2010. Global Patterns and Predictions of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests. PLoS ONE 5, no. 12 (December 30): e15323. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015323.

Marine Biodiversity: Known, Unknown, Unknowable

  • Bouchet, P. 2006. The magnitude of marine biodiversity. In The Exploration of Marine Biodiversity. Scientific and Technological Challenges, 31–62. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA.
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System. [August 1, 2010]
  • Webb, T., E. Vanden Berghe, and R. O'Dor. 2010. Biodiversity's Big Wet Secret: The Global Distribution of Marine Biological Records Reveals Chronic Under-Exploration of the Deep Pelagic Ocean. PLoS ONE 5, no. 8: e10223. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010223.
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